Aryabhatt Vedic Lession
The Houses
The twelve houses of a horoscope deal with all conceivable aspects of life. The most important of all houses is the lagna or the first house. The remaining houses are basically related to the first house only. The planets in the horoscopic chart are subservient to the lagna, and their original nature undergoes modifications depending upon the lagna.
(1) The Kendras (or Quadrants) : Houseuses 1, 4, 7 and 10. These are highly significant houses.
(2) The Panapharas (or Successant Houses) : Houses 2, 5, 8 and11.
(3) The Apoklimas (or Cadent Houses) : Houses 3, 6, 9 and 12.
(4) The Trikonas (or Trines) : Houses 1, 5 and 9. These are highly auspicious and along with the Kendras, determine the health, wealth, status, dignity, rise and virtue of a native.
(5)The Upachaya : Houses 3, 6, 10 and 11. These houses indicate struggle, competition and material achievement.
(6)The Trik Houses : Houses 6, 8 and 12. These are considered bad houses. They indicate debt, disease, loss and misery.
(7) The Ayu-sthanas (or houses of longevity) : Houses 8 and 3. They indicate the length of life and, therefore, also the death.
(8) The Maraka-sthanas (or killer houses) : Houses 2 and 7.
(9) The two halves of a horoscope :
(a) Houses 1 to 7 indicate the invisible half and houses 7 to 1 indicate the visible half of the horoscope.

(b)Houses 10 to 4 indicate the eastern half and houses 4 to 10 indicate the western half of the horoscope.
The Planets

Nine main planets are employed in Vedic Astrology. Their English equivalents and symbols are given below :

Vedic name
English equivalent
Ravi (Surya)
Guru (Brihaspati)
Rahu (Dragon's head)
Ketu (Dragon's tail)
(1) Physical Attributes
The Sun has a square build,scanty but curly hair, lovely appearance, good intelligence, impressive voice, medium stature, red eyes, dark red complexion, strong bones, bilious nature, firm temperment and saffron robes.
The Moon has a slim but roundish body, beautiful appearance, lovely eyes, sweet tongue, phlegm and wind in his composition, white complexion, short curly hair, amiable nature, Sattvika inclination, discriminating wisdom, restless nature, excessive sexual urge, white robes.
Mars is characterised by fierce red eyes, short stature, tough and youthful body, fickle but generous disposition, short but shining and curly hair, valorous nature, Tamasika inclination, eagerness to hurt, easy excitability, bilious disposition and fair complexion.
Mercury has a slim and beautiful body, large reddish eyes, dark green complexion, healthy skin, medium height, clear and witty speech, expression with multiple meanings, Rajasika inclination, plenty of energy, bile, wind and phlegm in his composition, and green robes.
Jupiter has a big belly and a fat body,pale eyes, virtuous disposition, phlegmatic temperament, knowledge of scriptures and sciences, bright yellow complexion, Sattvika inclination, sharp intelligence, keenness in religious pursuits, forgiving nature and yellow-coloured dress.
Venus is dark brown and handsome, of symmetrical limbs and dark curly hair, writer of poetry, and has an amorous disposition. He has long arms, broad chest, excessive seminal fluid, windy and phlegmatic temperament, Rajasika inclination, grace, vigour, wisdom and intelligence, and multi-coloured robes.
Saturn has a tall, lean and weak body, dark complexion, stiff hair and limbs, large teeth, lazy disposition, windy temperament, cruel nature, Tamasika inclination, lame, dark and shabby robes.
Rahu and Ketu have a bluish complexion resembling smoke, wild in bearing, intelligent, and of windy disposition.
(2) Planetary Lordship :
The Sun owns
The Moon owns
Mars owns
Mesha and Vrischika
Mercury owns
Mithuna and Kanya
Jupiter owns
Dhanu and Meena
Venus owns
Vrisha and Tula
Saturn owns
Makara and Kumbha
(3) Castes :
Brahmins Jupiter, Venus
Kshatriyas Sun, Mars
Vaishyas Moon, Mercury
Shudra Saturn
(4) Essential nature :
Sattvika (good and noble) Sun, Moon, Jupiter
Rajasika (active and just) Mercury, Venus
Tamasika (dark and base) Mars, Saturn
(5) Rulership in respect of the Kaala-Purusha :

Sun Soul
Moon Mind
Mars Essence
Mercury Speech
Jupiter Wisdom and comforts
Venus Seminal fluid
Saturn Miseries
(6) Social status :
King Sun, Moon
Commander-in-chief Mars
Heir-apparent Mercury
Ministers Jupiter, Venus
Servant Saturn
Army Rahu and Ketu
(7) Gender :
Masculine Sun, Mars, Jupiter
Feminine Moon, Venus
Eunuchs Mercury, Saturn
(8) Rulership over body constituents :
Sun Bones
Moon Blood
Mars Marrow
Mercury Skin
Jupiter Fat
Venus Seminal fluid
Saturn Nerves
(9) Places represented :
Sun Temple
Moon Watery place
Mars Place of fire
Mercury Playground
Jupiter Treasure house
Venus Bedroom
Saturn Dirty places, sites of refuse disposal
(10) Directions :
Sun East
Moon North West
Mars South
Mercury North
Jupiter North East
Venus South East
Saturn West
Rahu South West
(11) Directional strength :
Mercury, Jupiter East (Lagna or the 1st house)
Sun, Mars South (10th house)
Moon, Venus North (4th house)
Saturn West (7th house)
(12) Benefics and Malefics :
Natural benefics Moon, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus
Natural malefics Sun, Mars, Saturn, Rahu, Ketu

The waning Moon and afflicted Mercury too behave as malefics.
(13) Exaltation, Debilitation and Moola Trikona : Planets are strong and favourable when placed in their exaltation signs or in Moola Trikona signs.
Exaltation, Debilitation and Moola Trikona of Planets.

Planet Exaltation Debilitation Mooltrikona
The Sun Aries 10 Libra 10 Leo 0-20
The Moon Taurus 3 Scorpio 3 Taurus 4-20
Mars Capricorn 28 Cancer 28 Aries 0-12
Mercury Virgo 15 Pisces 15 Virgo 16-20
Jupiter Cancer 5 Capricorn 5 Sagittarius 0-10
Venus Pisces 27 Virgo 27 Libra 0-15
Saturn Libra 20 Aries 20 Aquarius 0-20
(14) Natural Mutual Relationship of Planets : Planets according to their nature, are disposed as friends or enemies or neutrals towards other planets. A planet's friends are the lord of its exaltation sign as also the planets owning houses 2, 12, 5, 9, 4 and 8 from its Moola Trikona sign.
Natural mutual relationship of planets.

Planet Friends Enemies Neutrals
The Sun Mon, Mar, Jup Ven, Sat Mer
The Moon Sun, Mer -- Mars, Jup, Ven, Sat
Mars Sun, Mon, Jup Mer Ven, Sat
Mercury Sun, Ven Mon Mars, Jup, Sat
Jupiter Sun, Mon, Mar Mer, Ven Sat
Venus Mer, Sat Sun, Mon Mars, Jup
Saturn Mer, Ven Sun, Mon, Mar Jup
(15) Temporal relationship : Besides their natural disposition as friends, enemies or equals(neutrals) towards each other, planets become friends or enemies of each other depending upon their location in a horoscopic chart.

Temporal friends
: Planets located in houses 2, 12, 3, 11, 4 and 10 from any planet become its temporal friends.

Temporal enemies
: Planets located in houses 1 (i.e., conjunction), 7 (opposition), 5, 9, 6 and 8 from any planet become its temporal enemies.
(16) Five grades of relationship : On the basis of their natural and temporal disposition towards each other, planets may have any of the five grades of relationships given below :

Natural Temporal Resultant relationship
1. Friend Friend Bosom friend
2. Friend Enemy Neutral
3. Neutral Friend Friend
4. Neutral Enemy Enemy
5. Enemy Friend Neutral
6. Enemy Enemy Bitter enemy
(17) Aspects, Combustion and Retrogression : Planets exert their influence on the houses and planets that they aspect. All planets fully aspect the seventh house, or planets located therein, from their own position. in addition, the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) have been granted special aspects.Thus Mars also fully aspects houses 4 and 8, Jupiter houses 5 and 9, and Saturn houses 3 and 10. The remaining planets cast a quarter glance on houses 3 and 10, Half an aspect on houses 5 and 9, and three-quarter aspect on houses 4 and 8.

Planets when close to the Sun tend to lose their strength and vitality, and are considered to be combust. A combust planet loses its capacity to do good and produces adverse results. Planets also become retrograde when, during their motion, they appear to be moving in a reverse direction. The Sun and the Moon do not become retrograde while Rahu and Ketu (almost) always move in a retrograde direction. A retrograde planet produces unexpected results and is generally adverse for health. A retrograde planet also exerts influence from its preceding house.